Human factors, FOD Prevention, Counterfeit parts and Safety Management System (SMS)
Human Factors are the determined causes of human error!
FOD Prevention requires a full understanding of all factors relating to Foreign Object Debris and the potential for Foreign Object Damage specifically in the manufacturing operations.
Counterfeit parts pose a clear and present danger to organizations, their customers and the end-user of products.
Safety Management System (SMS) is an organized approach to managing safety, including the necessary organizational structures, accountabilities, policies, objectives and procedures. Now a requirement for Part 21 Sub G & Sub J.
We’ve all heard the excuse: “it’s down to human error” with the assumption that there’s nothing we can do about it. Human Factors (HF) focuses on understanding why human errors occur in manufacturing operations –
selecting and using the appropriate 'model' to search for root cause(s)
finding and proving the root cause(s)
implementing effective ‘controls’ (barriers) to prevent; using practical psychology; or mitigate the consequences of human errors to downstream operations or the customer
FOD Prevention Program in Manufacturing (AS9146)
Foreign Object Damage (FOD) is any damage attributed to alien substances or articles which could potentially degrade the product or system’s required safety and/or performance characteristics.
FOD-related requirements are contained in AS9146, AS9100 and AS13100 and provide practical implementation strategies taken from industry sources to mitigate FOD risk using the most cost-effective solutions.
Establishing and maintaining an effective FOD prevention program involves using a process approach and risk-based thinking that proactively addresses the events (conditions and actions) leading to FOD. Risk-based thinking ensures FOD risk is considered when establishing, implementing, and maintaining a FOD prevention program.
Counterfeit parts (CP) prevention
Counterfeit parts (CP) are parts made or modified so as to imitate or resemble an ‘approved part’ without authority or right, and with the intent to mislead, intentionally falsify or defraud by passing the imitation as original or genuine. CPs are "causal factors" in numerous aviation accidents and emergency landings.
CP avoidance demands a formal counterfeit parts prevention program with awareness training for personnel. Understand everything that is needed to develop, document and implement/audit conforming processes to address requirements contained in these standards/guidance documents: AS9100, AS13100, AS5553C, ARP6328, AS6174A and IEC TS 62668-1.
Safety Management System (SMS)
A SMS is an organized approach to managing safety, including the necessary organizational structures, accountabilities, policies, objectives and procedures.
The requirement for a SMS has now (2023) been embodied into Part 21 regulations for organizations responsible for the type design (Sub J) and/or production (Sub G) of aeronautical parts and articles.
Product safety is determined by, and reflected in, the safety practices and behaviours in the workplace, as well as in the output of the product.
Organizations need to consider operator, process, and product safety to understand how safety practices and culture can affect the safety outcomes of the organization.