The considerable and worthwhile supplier effort put into the AS9145 APQP process and PPAP submission should guarantee ‘perfect product and OTIF performance’ for customers. Your APQP & PPAP process must, of course, be subject to internal audits to ensure ongoing effectiveness. However, the nagging fear remains – mission drift on the shop floor! Specifically, manufacturing methods aligned with the Control Plan may not continue to be adhered to, resulting in quality issues and loss of productivity. Clearly, a stringent ‘policing method’ must be deployed.
Layered Process Audits (LPA) are a system of audits performed by multiple levels of supervision and management to check whether the outputs (deliverables) of APQP are being properly followed, correct materials are being used, specified tools and equipment are employed and competent & qualified personnel are involved. LPA also monitor key process characteristics (e.g. Cpk & ppm) and verify process perfomance on an ongoing basis.
The main focus of the 1-day LPA session is practicality. Consequently, the majority of the time is given over to individual/team exercises to understand the LPA principles and practices, the preparation of bespoke audit questionnaires and workshops to test student skills in evaluating working practices and objective evidence.
If required, the course may be augmented by an optional on-site supervised LPA (including one-on-one coaching)
Students are requested to bring along documents relating to one of their organization’s own products –
- engineering drawing
- work instruction
They will be using these documents during several of the workshops.
APQP overview and system status
- APQP & PPAP – sequenced phases – perfect product
- Check your own documentation (Engineering Drawings/Specifications, Process Layout Charts, Control Plans, Work Instructions, etc.)
- Individual exercise – where is your organization now?
APQP System Audit – Methodology
- Sources of APQP System Audit questions
- Example – creating audit checklist questions for the Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
- Team exercise – creating audit checklist questions
- Full set of specimen APQP system audit questions
Conducting an APQP System Audit – Opening & Closing Meetings
- Conducting an APQP System Audit
- Formalizing APQP System nonconformities
- Team exercise – APQP System Audit opening and closing meetings
Layered Process Audit (LPA) – Methodology
- Defining a ‘process’ and understanding ‘controlled conditions’
- Reflect on the words of W Edwards Deming
- Team exercise – mandated criteria for process controlled conditions
- Quiz – where and when are controlled conditions specified in AS9145?
- Quiz – are specified APQP controlled conditions in routine use?
- LPA focus, scope, personnel and location
- Prerequisites for LPA – processes and planning team
Prioritizing and developing – LPA check-sheet questions
- Prioritizing processes for LPA
- Identifying LPA questions – controlled conditions
- Example – identifying sources of variation with controlled conditions
- Identifying LPA questions – risk based
- Example – identifying sources of variation with Ishikawa diagram
- Team exercise – identifying high risk elements in the workflow
- Overview of LPA check-sheet questions
- Format of LPA check-sheet questions
- Example – LPA check-sheet template
- Example – LPA check-sheet with questions
- Team exercise – creating a LPA check-sheet
Scheduling, conducting and reporting a LPA – Determining root causes Scheduling the LPA
- LPA verification of controlled conditions
- Conducting the LPA, taking actions and recording findings
- Example – LPA audit report
- LPA is not about assigning blame it’s finding a solution
- Team preparation – preparing for, and undertaking, your first LPA
- Beware the excuse “operator error” – ask what? and why?
- Look for ‘whys’ from different perspectives
- Identifying the ‘real’ root causes of nonconformities
Staffing LPA and scheduling LPA – Benefits of LPA
- LPA process owner – responsibilities
- LPA – audit personnel and top management responsibilities
- Team exercise – identifying LPA personnel
- Team quiz – recognizing the benefits of LPAs
- Undertaking a LPA as an on-site ‘coaching session’
Extended Q & A session
Who should attend
Cross-functional team members who wish to undertake effective APQP and Layered Process Audits –
- operators (shop-floor workers)
- team leaders and supervisors
- department managers
- plant managers & directors (every quarter)!
The course will also useful to Six Sigma ‘Belts’ during the Control Step.
By the end of this 1-day practical course & workshop participants will be able to plan, perform and report the results of an APQP Audit using the Layered Process Audit (LPA) technique.
TEC's knowledge and experience of performing formal manufacturing process (products) audits has been gained from working with clients in the UK, Europe, USA and Russia – the automotive, aviation, defence and rail sectors. During these assignments we have ensured that our client’s personnel are empowered to undertake effective manufacturing process audits to ensure conformity with current manufacturing methods, and to identify opportunities for improvement that can be implemented under controlled conditions.
Our ‘know-how’ is available to your organization through this new 1-day practical course and workshop. We ensure that students will learn, in a structured manner, how to use a battery of powerful LPA techniques and tools to boost the effectiveness of your APQP & PPAP process.