In an effort to ensure that problems only ever occur once; and are then fixed permanently; the global AESQ (Aero Engine manufacturers) have collaborated to create a standardized approch to disciplined problem solving which is customised for the industry using the 8-D step-by-step methodology popularized by Ford Motor Company and Toyota in the 80’s.
This course meets in full the requirements of the now superseded AS13000 standard and the requirements of AS13100 and RM13000 ~ "8-D Problem Solving Reference Manual".
8-D is a highly structured method that solves problems by identifying and correcting the root causes of events as opposed to simply addressing their symptoms! The methodology is structured into eight disciplines, emphasizing a cross-functional team synergy and the use of designated quality tools and techniques.
By the end of this 2-day interactive course and workshop participants will understand ‘disciplined’ problem solving and be able to facilitate and document value-adding problem-solving exercises using the Eight Disciplines (8-D) method to respond to a customer request for corrective action in conformity to AS13000 requirements.
Assessment of learning is achieved through structured exercises and an aerospace Case Study. Our tutors provide feedback and advisement to ensure that risk-based thinking, ethical behaviour, human factors and associated best practices are fully understood in the context of the aerospace/defence industry.
- All participants undertake an assessed Case Study to test their application of 8-D
- A optional 1½-hour written examination is available at the end of Day-2 based on an individual analysis of an Aerospace Case Study.
The 2-day course is highly interactive and uses Aerospace Case Studies and group exercises. The course timings are -
- Day-1: 08:30 - 17:00
- Day-2: 08:30 - 15:30
- Day-2: Optional written exam and/or Team Case Study (all open book) - 15:30 -17:00
On-site coaching (option)
TEC also offer on-site coaching session delivered over 1- or 2-days as an option. We facilitate an 8-D problem solving session with the organization’s Champion, Team Leader and designated team members.
The course is delivered over two consecutive days with continual assessment and feedback provided by the tutors.In addition, there is a optionl 1½-hour written examination is available at the end of Day-2.
Preamble – what is a facilitator?
- Understanding the roles and responsibilities of a facilitator
- Team exercise – trying out ice-breakers
Understanding problems and their causes
- Defining problems – the ‘effects’
- Agreeing a problem title – ‘thematic’ content
- Team exercise – examples of problems
- The three types of causes
- Understanding ‘logic paths ~ causes
- Understanding ‘Boolean logic’ ~ causes
- Understanding ‘cause-and-effect’
- Understanding the ‘swiss cheese’ model
- Understanding ‘human factor’ causes
- Team exercise – root cause determination
Systematised problem solving
- D0 – Implement immediate containment and prepare for 8-D
- D1 – Form the team
- D2 – Define the problem
- D3 – Develop containment actions
- D4 – Identify and verify root cause(s)
- D5 – Identify corrective action
- D6 – Implement corrective action
- D7 – Define and plan preventive action
- D8 – Recognize the team
- Team exercise – understanding the 8-D steps
- Facilitator test – explaining 8-D to teams
- Timelines (AS13000)
Illustrating the 8-D process
- 8-D guiding principle – don’t close-off too early
- _Case Study_ – illustrating the 8-D process
- “The case of the rusty pins”
D0 – Containment and definition of problem
- Structured questioning – the 4W2H1W
- IS – IS NOT questioning
- IS–IS NOT questioning – quantified description
- Team exercise – focus on D0
D1 – Establish the team
- Establish an appropriate team
- Illustration – Champion, Facilitator and Team
- Team exercise – focus on D1
D2 – Define the problem
- Understand non-conformance to the customer
- Problem/Event discovery point
- Problem/Event manifestation
- Problem/Event impact
- Problem/Event focus
- Locate the problem/event generation point
- Categorical data
- Other quantification
- Problem/event discovery point
- Symptom and problem statement questions
- Team exercise – focus on D2
D3 – Implement & verify interim actions
- stem-the-flow & stop-the-bleed
- Containment action
- Protect ‘the customer’ (stem-the-flow!)
- Team exercise – focus on D3
D4 – Identify and verify root causes
- Identify possible root cause(s)
- Tools to identify the root cause(s)
- Example of tools to identify the root causes
- ISHIKAWA diagram
- Using 5-Whys and ISHIKAWA – in tandem!
- Find root causes from different ‘perspectives’
- Understanding ‘root cause’ categories
- Illustration – Process
- Illustration – System
- Verifying the root cause – the “therefore test”
- Verifying the root cause – “IS – IS NOT test”
- Eliminating root causes with "Occam's Razor"
- Team exercise – focus on D4
D5 – Select & verify permanent corrective actions
- Choose and verify corrective action(s)
- Classify causes and actions
- Consider risks and make a choice
- Impact-effort matrix
- Team exercise – focus on D5
D6 – Implement & validate permanent corrective actions
- corrective actions
- process & system
- P-D-C-A cycle
- Introduce error proofing wherever possible
- Focus on human factors and test inspection
- Review and validate the actions
- Illustration - confirm actions aimed at the process
- Illustration - confirm actions aimed at the system
- Team exercise – focus on D6
D7 – Prevent recurrence
- Prevent recurrence – process and system
- Prevent recurrence – template
- Audit for effectiveness
- Team exercise – focus on D7
D8 – Draw conclusions & congratulate team
- Recognize the success of the (entire) team
- Formally close the project
- Review ‘lessons learned’
- 'read across' & 'corrective action impact'
- Draw conclusions and congratulate team
- Recognize team and individual contributions
- Formally recognize the team effort
- Document the effort
- Report to top management
- Make the recognition ‘high-profile’
- Communicate the success – ‘Storyboards’
- Team exercise – 8-D project close-off
- Customer communication
- Review the 8-D Report for completeness
- Team exercise – focus on D8
Assessing and auditing 8-D – the “8-D+” step
- AS13000 quality system requirements
- Assessing the ‘quality’ of the 8-D activity
- APPENDIX B – 8-D CHECK LIST
- Team exercise – focus on “D8+”
Practicing 8-D step-1
- Team exercise – 5-Whys
- The car won’t start!
- Tutor evaluation and advisement
Practicing 8-D step-2
- Team exercise – ISHIKAWA diagram
- The toast burned!
- Tutor evaluation and advisement
Evaluating and auditing 8-D
- Team exercise – Auditing an 8-D project
- The missing rivets
- Tutor evaluation and advisement
Who should attend
Champions/Sponsors, Facilitators and Team Leaders who must respond to customer requests for corrective action using the 8-D process and communicate progress using the 8-D Problem Solving Form of AS13000.
Particular emphasis is placed on empowering, as well as qualifying, the individuals who will be facilitating 8-D workshops.
Apart from these nominated ‘Facilitators’ all persons participating in the cross-functional problem-solving team will benefit from attending this course.
This is a TEC "Practitioner" course – consequently it incorporates "train-the-trainer".
Students attending this course, and successfully passing the written examination (optional), will receive a training certificate containing the TEC Transnational Logo (recognised training provider).
The 8-D problem solving methodology covers three key stages of correction and corrective action.This course empowers participants to -
- Act rapidly to put immediate containment action in place to protect the customer (stop the bleeding!)
- Find and fix the root cause with a permanent corrective action on all current product
- Prevent the recurrence of the problem in the future by identifying and implementing preventive action anywhere possible within the organization
Organizations need to empower a Champion/Sponsor, Facilitator(s) and team members in the 8-D problem solving methodology in line with the requirements of the AS13000 standard.
Organizations offering 8-D problem solving embedded in their QMS will have a distinct competitive advantage.
TEC's 2-day course will empower and qualify all of the organization’s cross-functional team members to undertake value-adding 8-D problem solving and communicate progress to the customer concerned using the 8-D Problem Solving Form of AS13000.
The individuals attending will learn how to use a set of powerful quality tools for both data collection and analysis.In addition they will be able to plan and facilitate 8-D problem solving exercises.
A optional 1½-hour written examination is available as an at the end of Day-2 based on the analysis of an Aerospace Case Study.
Alternatively, the organization chooses to provide a real problem for solution. This then replaces the illustrated case study and the written examination.