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e-Learning: Human factors in manufacturing

Programme overview

We’ve all heard the excuse: "it’s down to human error" with the assumption that there's nothing we can do about it. However, when any type of quality issue was caused by a person doing something incorrectly; there will be a deeper root cause of the incident. These precursors or preconditions are referred to as human factors.

TEC's unique e-Learning course focuses on understanding why human errors occur in manufacturing operations, selecting and using the appropriate 'model' to search for root cause(s), finding and proving the true cause(s) which are the human factors, then implementing effective 'controls' (barriers) to prevent or mitigate the consequences of human errors to downstream operations, customer or end-users.

You will also learn how to harness 'practical psychology' to help motivate operators to do the right thing, first time and every time – and strive for continual sustainable improvement.

The course covers in detail everything that is needed to develop and implement effective processes to address/prevent human factors in the manufacturing environment.

Programme details

Understanding human errors and human factors

  • What are human errors in aviation manufacture?
  • Exercise: examples of human error(s)
  • Human errors are the result of human factors
  • Test: Human errors and human factors
  • Human factors & Quality management principles
  • Test: matching human factors principles with their quality management equivalents

Understanding the scope of ‘manufacturing’ in AS9100

  • Quality management system requirements
  • Documentation requirements for ‘scope’
  • Exercise: Evaluating your organisation’s statement of scope

Understanding an organisation’s mission, vision and values

  • Importance of mission and vision
  • Importance of values
  • Exercise: your organisation’s mission, vision and values

People and competency

  • Definitions of people/competency terminology
  • Exercise: defining an operator's competency

Organization structure and job descriptions

  • Organizational chart
  • Job descriptions
  • Important functions of a job description
  • Exercise: evaluating your own job description

Understanding authority, responsibility and accountability

  • Terminology
  • Authority
  • Responsibility
  • Accountability
  • Interrelationships between authority, responsibility and accountability
  • Test: explaining authority, responsibility, accountability, ethical behaviour and just culture

A first look at the sources and consequences of human errors

  • Sources of human errors
  • Consequences of human errors
  • Aircraft accidents and their consequences
  • Exercise: consequences of human error(s)

A first look at operator behaviour

  • Jens Rasmussen – operator behaviour and associated errors
  • Knowledge-based
  • Rule-based
  • Skill-based
  • Quiz: explaining the three types of operator behaviour
  • Operator movement between the types of behaviour
  • Exercise: operator movement between Knowledge, Rule and Skill modes

A first look at the causes of human errors

  • Distinguishing between human errors and nonconformities
  • The Ishikawa diagram – directed Brainstorming
  • Ishikawa/Fishbone diagram representing knowledge, rule and skill ‘framework’
  • Test: explaining the three types of operator errors

General classification of ‘operator errors’ (What happened)

  • Classifying ‘What happened’
  • Visualizing ‘What happened’ with an Ishikawa diagram
  • Test: classification of ‘types of operator errors’
  • Exercise: identifying ‘types of operator errors’ in a real-world situation

Errors resulting from failures in planning and/or execution

  • Understanding plans and actions
  • Understanding outcomes – success and error
  • Test: explaining failures in planning and/or execution
  • Exercise: Aloha Airlines Flight 243 – Error/Find & Fix

IAQG’s general “cause codes” for reported nonconformities

  • IAQG’s root-cause code initiative
  • IAQG’s 4-categories of human factor/root causes
  • Exercise – Relating IAQG “cause codes” to the correct ‘perspectives’
  • The 'PEAR' Model

Methodologies for determining root causes/human factors

  • The 'two-stage' approach
  • Ishikawa diagram
  • 5-WHYs
  • Aviation example – what the operator did/did not do
  • Exercise: investigation of the flight 5390 incident

Linking human errors to human factors

  • Defining human error
  • Understanding what happened
  • Commencing the search for human factors
  • Refining the search for human factors
  • Test: identifying relevant categories for directed brainstorming

Other models for determining human factors

  • Overview of models for Ishikawa/Fishbone diagrams
  • SCMH human factors categories – manufacturing-focused
  • Exercise: SCMH human factors categories
  • The ‘dirty dozen’ human factors – maintenance-focused
  • Exercise: United Airlines Flight 232 – identifying ‘dirty dozen’ human factors
  • The SHELL model – working environments-focused
  • Exercise: SHELL Model looking for ‘contributing causes’ and ‘influences’

Testing the validity of determined root causes/human factors

  • Rationale behind testing 'probables'
  • Scoring
  • IS – IS NOT test
  • Therefore test
  • Sherlock Holmes test
  • Occam’s Razor
  • Choosing between the tests

How are we performing? – KPIs, targets, results

  • AS9100 requirements for performance measures
  • Incidents of human errors/factors as KPIs
  • Personal assignment

Human factors and competency

  • Human factors and countermeasures
  • The 'three dimensions' of competency

Practical physiology, needs and motivation

  • The physiology of needs and motivation
  • Maslow's hierarchy of needs
  • Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation
  • Quiz: principles of ‘practical physiology’

Understanding how thoughts/feelings affect results/behaviour

  • Herzberg’s 'internalized' motivation
  • Tim Autrey’s "6-hour safety culture"

Understanding how you/organization can influence motivation

  • What you cannot do!
  • What you can do!
  • Cognitive Behavioural Therapies (CBT)
  • Quiz: Understanding thoughts/feelings, results/behaviour and motivation

Influencing behaviour with on-purpose/situational feedback

  • Focused feedback
  • Continual feedback
  • Implementing the TGR and TGW philosophy
  • Test: On-purpose/situational feedback, TGR and TGW

Planning and implementing countermeasures

  • Planning countermeasures
  • Implementing countermeasures
  • Quiz: Understanding terminology associated with countermeasures

Institutionalizing an effective TGR & TGW process

  • TGR – Things-Gone-Right
  • TGW – Things Gone Wrong
  • Accentuate the positive – eliminate the negative!
  • Boosting motivation with just culture & core principles
  • Quiz: Ethical behaviour and related operator qualities
  • Checklist of required actions
  • Personal assignment: human factors programme

Being proactive – differentiating between 'events' and 'hazards'

  • Understanding events/problems
  • Understanding hazards/failure modes

Methodologies for 'proactively' identifying/quantifying events/hazards

  • Proactive methodologies overview
  • The bow-tie model
  • Quiz: identifying the 'elements' of the bow-tie model
  • Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (FMEA)
  • PFMEA methodology
  • Targets for a PFMEA
  • Prerequisites for a PFMEA
  • Exercise: Sequence of steps in a PFMEA

Continual sustainable improvement

  • Review of the human factors 'models'
  • Ongoing facilitator responsibilities
  • Designing training programmes
  • Training goals
  • Training programme considerations
  • Factors to include in training programmes
  • Quiz: Key factors to be included in human factors training programmes
  • Applying the AS9100 'core concepts' to human factors
  • Final comments

Programme benefits

The benefits of e-learning are numerous; not only are they extremely cost-effective but they provide students with convenience and flexibility as they embark on their learning journey. You can complete your training whenever and wherever you want, and at your own pace – and even have an anonymous ‘trial run’.

Companies do not have to tie-up entire teams at the same time as is the case with conventional classroom-based training.

The e-Learning course covers in detail everything that is needed to develop and implement effective processes to address/prevent human factors in the manufacturing environment.

Buy now

Buy e-Learning: Human factors in manufacturing

The course is delivered as an online e-Learning module via the TEC Transnational Ltd learning platform. Set quantity and provide email addresses for learners at checkout.

e-Learning: Human Factors

£90

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